FFR is a diagnostic test that measures blood pressure and flow through a specific part of the coronary artery to determine if it needs treatment

What is Fractional Flow Reserve?

Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) is a diagnostic test used to evaluate the severity of blockages or narrowing in the coronary arteries. It is a pressure-based measurement that is used to determine the extent to which a coronary artery is causing a reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle.


The indications for FFR include patients with stable angina who have intermediate blockages in the coronary arteries. The test is used to determine whether a blockage is severe enough to require treatment with angioplasty or stenting.

The Procedure

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted through an artery in the groin or arm and guided to the site of the blockage. A special wire is then threaded through the catheter and positioned beyond the blockage. The wire has a tiny pressure sensor on its tip that can measure the blood pressure on either side of the blockage. A medication called adenosine is then injected to simulate the effects of exercise and increase the flow of blood through the coronary artery. The FFR is then calculated by dividing the pressure measured beyond the blockage by the pressure measured before the blockage.
The procedure is performed under local anesthesia, and the FFR measurement takes only a few minutes. Patients may experience some discomfort during the injection of adenosine, which can cause a temporary drop in blood pressure and a flushing sensation.
After the procedure, patients are usually monitored in the hospital for a few hours to make sure there are no complications. Most patients can go home the same day. If the FFR indicates that the blockage is significant, the patient may need to undergo angioplasty or stenting to restore blood flow in the affected artery. If the blockage is not significant, the patient may be managed with medication and lifestyle changes.


Overall, FFR is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and management of CAD. It provides important information that can help guide treatment decisions and improve patient outcomes. The procedure is generally safe, but like any medical procedure, it does carry some risks, such as bleeding, infection, and allergic reactions to the medication. However, these risks are generally low and outweighed by the benefits of the procedure in most cases.

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